• Sat. Jun 15th, 2024

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Due to the infection blood vessels of the conjunctiva become irritated and inflamed resulting they became more visible (which cause the redness in the eye). From the infected cells pus comes out (thick).Tears (water) generally released to neutralized the infection. Infection and interrupted blood supply (as blood vessels are swelled up) causes pain and blurred vision (due to improper function of nerves).

What is Conjunctivitis or “pink eye” ?

Infection or inflammation in the conjunctiva of the eye generally known as Conjunctivitis.

Symptoms of Conjunctivitis :

A) Red or Pink color in the white part of the eye (may in both the eyes)

B) Swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids

C) Itchiness in eye (one or both).

D) Blurred vision.

E) Eye pain.

F) Eyes with gritty feeling.

G) May have feeling like a foreign partial is in the eye with the urge to rub.

H) Discharge (pus or mucus) in one or both eyes.

I) Crust may be observed that could prevent eye opening in the morning.

J) Running eyes throughout the day. K) Light sensitivity.

What is the conjunctiva and where is it located ?

Conjunctiva :

Clear thin layer of membrane which cover the frontal surface of the eye. Conjunctiva Consist of two main parts.

A)Bulbar conjunctiva :

Part of conjunctiva which covers the anterior portion of Sclera (the WHITE part of eye ball). In normal condition it never covers the cornea (transparent surface of eye, situated in front of the iris and pupil, which allow the entry of light in the eye.

B)Palpebral conjunctiva :

Present on the inner surface of upper and lower eye lid.

C)Fornix conjunctiva:

It is the Junction of Bulbar conjunctiva and Palpebral conjunctiva.

Anatomy of Conjunctiva :

 Made up of unkeratinized, stratified columnar epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium with numerous goblet cells in between. The epithelial layer contain…

(a)Many blood vessels for oxygen and nutrients supply. These blood vessels are connected to the ophthalmic artery (for bulbar conjunctiva) and the external carotid artery (for palpebral conjunctiva).

(b)Fibrous tissue

(c)Lymphatic channels

(d)Accessory lacrimal glands secret lubricants (tears)

(e)Nerves : 1.Supraorbital nerve , Supratrochlear nerve , Infratrochlear nerve (in Superior area).

2.Infraorbital nerve (in Inferior area),

3.Lacrimal nerve (in Lateral area),

4.Long ciliary nerves (in Circumcorneal area).

Function of conjunctiva :

 It reduces the friction with eye lid and eye ball. It keeps the outer surface of the eye moist. Provide protection from tiny particles of environment (Dust, Pollen). Act as a natural barrier for microorganisms.

Types of Conjunctivitis :

Viral Conjunctivitis :
May develop with symptoms of a cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. Watery discharge from the eye instead of pus.

Causative Viruses :

adenoviruses are most common, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) (may cause severe problem )

Mode of transmission for Viral Conjunctivitis:

It can spread easily from one person to another. These viruses may spread through Hand to eye contact. Where hand is contaminated with infectious tears, eye discharge, fecal matter, or saliva and cough.

 Bacterial Conjunctivitis :

 Bacterial infection commonly associated with discharge (pus), where eyelids may stick together.May associate with an ear infection.

Causative Bacteria :

Staphylococcus species are the most common for bacterial conjunctivitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae also cause the conjunctivitis.

In Children:

Bacterial conjunctivitis is more common than the viral conjunctivitis, and is mainly caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumonia Bacteria, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Mode of transmission for Bacterial Conjunctivitis:

 It can spread easily from one person to another. Generally spread by hand-to-eye contact, via eye contact with contaminated objects, through eye to genital contact, or vertically from mother to baby. Large respiratory tract droplets produce during coughing and sneezing. Mainly by touching contaminated object then touching the eye with the same hand without washing. This type of infection commonly seen in school going children .

Allergic Conjunctivitis : Generally happens in both eyes at the same time. Can produce intense gritty feeling with discharge, and redness with swelling in the eyes. May occur with other allergic symptoms, such as running nose, sneezing etc. May leads to mucus discharge with watery eyes.

Causative allergens :

 Pollen of flowers, dust mites, pet dander, mold, chemicals, smoke. These stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated local mast cell degranulation. In response allergic inflammation occur in conjunctiva.

Treatment of conjunctivitis :

Always better to visit to an Eye Specialist once infected. Any improper treatment can harm your eyes . Your doctor may prescribe topical antibiotic, eye drops or ointment whichever is necessary for you. Do not follow other’s medicine.

Does conjunctivitis airborne?

Viral and bacterial conjunctivitis can also be spread through the air by coughing and sneezing.

Does conjunctivitis spread by looking into infected person’s eyes ?

It does not spread by looking at somebody who is infected with Conjunctivitis.

During conjunctivitis what happens to conjunctiva ?

Due to infection blood vessels of the conjunctiva become irritated and inflamated resulting they became more visible (which cause the redness in the eye). From the infected cells pus comes out (thick).Tears (water) generally released to neutralized the infection. Infection and interrupted blood supply (as blood vessels are swelled up) causes pain and blurred vision (due to improper function of nerves).

Identification test or diagnosis for conjunctivitis :

Eye Culture : Sample of the cells taken from the inner layer of eyelids with a cotton swab then examined by a pathologist in a laboratory to identify the pathogen.

What is the duration of conjunctivitis?

Generally viral conjunctivitis are mild. It takes 7 to 15 days without treatment. In some cases it may take 2 to 3 weeks to clear up.

In which season conjunctivitis occur ?

Usually occur during the spring and summer (Allergic Conjunctivitis ) some times in fall.

In monsoon humidity (increase in aW value) is very high which provide the favorable condition for Bacterial and Viral activation which lead to viral and bacterial conjunctivitis.

Preventive measures for conjunctivitis :

Proper hygiene can help prevent the spread of conjunctivitis.

To DO things :

Preventive measures for conjunctivitis :

1)Don’t touch and rubb your eyes with your open hands.

2)Wash your hands in frequent interval.

3)Stop wearing contact lenses until doctor says to start wearing them again.

4)Do not share items like pillows, washcloths, towels, eye drops, eye or face makeup, makeup brushes with infected person.

5)Change your pillowcases often.

6)Better to wear mask.

7)Do not use old cosmetic kit(specially eye make up kit).

8)Follow CDC rule (When and How to Wash Your Hands)

 If you are around Infected person must follow following things…

  1. Do not touch your eyes by your hands.
  2. Wash your hands at least for 20 second with soap.
  3. Use sanitizer in your hands.
  4. Do not share touchable things with infected person for certain time.

Home remedies:

1)Clean the eye in one direction only, outwards from the inside (nose side) of the eye.

2)Each time discard the used cotton.

3)Do not try to clean inside the eyelids.

4)Apply a cool water compress to your eyes with clean cloth.

5)Try Doctor’s prescribed eye drops as suggested.

6)Don’t use contact lenses till it’s clear up.

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